To Geoff Mulgan cities cope with different challenges such as aging population, urbanisation, etc. Probably their biggest challenge is how to cope with change, understood as the disruption of new technologies, housing, refugee integration, etc.
Geoff Mulgan highlights the project D-CENT, a Europe-wide project that aims to create digital tools for direct democracy and economic emporwerment through citizen participation. Launched by Nesta, it has been already adopted in cities like Barcelona or Paris. To him, such projects are those who really turn cites into true collective intelligence.